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Audubon magazine recently featured Alison Boyer in this article exploring the variations among island birds, from dwarfism to flightlessness, due to evolution.

“It’s really metabolically expensive for birds to maintain their flight muscles,” Boyer said. Without them, “[they] can put more of their energy toward reproduction, or maintaining their own body, or growing a little bit faster or bigger.”

Boyer is a joint faculty professor of ecology and evolutionary biology.